Monday, October 25, 2010


Many people take black people in Africa for granted; they think a black person can not do a thing without a white person on his side. But I completely disagree with such stereotypes. A black man can do everything he wants without a white man intervention also a white man can do everything he wants without Blackman’s intervention.

The history fully concur with me that Africa was and is not a “dark” continent after all. There are people who still think that people in Africa live on trees and eat like animals.while others still think that Africa wouldn’t have developed and transformed the way it is today if it was not because of colonisers. I beg to differ with such assertions. The history proves that Africans have been in mining ages before my great grand parents were born. They have been trading with gold for goodness sake, Mapungubwe is a perfect example.

The truth is, whether you are black, white, Indian, or coloured, God made us all and gave us equal opportunities. We, ourselves we then take for granted of what we are capable of. Other people are suffering not because they lack money, but because they do not think. They are still oppressed with the mentality that “behind every Blackman success, there is a white man”. The reality is that if you keep on thinking like that, you won’t make it in every aspect of life.

As God’s creatures, White, Indian, Black we need to work together to achieve greater things. Colour is nothing; it’s about potential and mental strength.

Below is the brief History, background of Mapungubwe Kingdom, gen up

settlement and cultural sequence in the Limpopo River Valley

Hunter-gatherers of the Stone Age roamed the river flood plains and cave sandstone hills of the Limpopo valley from time to time and left their stone tools there. Paintings in rock shelters and a few rock engravings are evidence of San hunter-gatherer communities in the Stone Age landscape. The first communities who made iron tool and clay pots arrived in the central Limpopo valley during the early Iron Age, possibly by AD 500. These people were the forerunners of larger farming communities of the Iron Age who settled in the Limpopo River valley between AD 800 and AD 1400.
The Iron Age sites at K2 and Mapungubwe were inhabited between AD 1000 and Ad 1300. Archaeologists believe that both sites were once capitals of African kings. Unfortunately the inhabitants identity remains a mystery since this part of history goes back before the written record and no known oral traditions can be recorded over a period of a thousand years, therefore the inhabitants are merely known as the ‘Mapungubweans’.

Mapungubwe is the site of three royal graves and was the center of a terraced settlement. Stonewalls buttressed the slopes and homesteads were scattered about. The king and his soldiers lived near the top of the hill and were supported by the people on the lower levels. The neighbouring village of K2 indicates that the inhabitants were subsistence farmers, raising both stock and crops. A valuable feature of K2 is the large central refuse site, from which archaeologists have been able to glean a store of information. Human remains from various graves indicate that these communities enjoyed a healthy, varied diet. People were prosperous and kept domesticated cattle, sheep, goats and dogs. The charred remains of storage huts have also been found, showing that millet, sorghum and cotton were cultivated.

Findings on Greefswald are typical of the Iron Age. Smiths created objects of iron, copper and gold for practical and decorative purposes – both for local use and for trade. Pottery, wood, ivory, bone, ostrich eggshells and the shells of snails and freshwater mussels indicate that many other materials were used and traded with cultures as far away as East Africa, Persia, Egypt, India and China.
It seems foreign trade was an important part of life in the area and large quantities of glass beads were obtained in exchange for gold and animal skins. At K2, numerous garden roller beads were made from imported glass beads.

The two main sites, Mapungubwe and K2, were proclaimed National Monuments in the early 1980’s. Boundaries are being set for the creation of a cross-border peace Park, named Mapungubwe National Park, this is also now a World Heritage Site.

traditions, subsistence, technology and trade
The traditions of African farming communities were central to their social life, settlement patterns, animal husbandry, agriculture, technology and trade. Many of these cultural aspects are reflected in the remains from K2 and Mapungubwe. A traditional African village is organized around family relationships, and creates household activity areas and places for special social occasions such as initiation schools and religious ceremonies. The close relationship of the villagers with their cattle is often symbolized by the position of the cattle kraal in the village. The domestic animals kept by African Iron Age people included cattle, sheep, goats and dogs. These people cultivated plants such as varieties of sorghum, millet and beans. The Iron Age people were skilled miners and metal workers. Some evidence of their skills are the numerous gold mines in Zimbabwe and some tin and copper mines in South Africa.

K2 – AN IRON AGE SITE: at the foot of Bambandyanalo Hill
K2 is I km southwest of Mapungubwe Hill in a small valley surrounded by cliffs. G A Gardner, who excavated there during the 1930’s, named K2. Between about AD 1030 and AD 1220, for nearly 200 years, many generations of farming people lived at K2. The main site of about 5 hectares includes the remains of a central homestead area, a central cattle kraal and a central midden, surrounded by smaller homesteads.
EVIDENCE OF DAILY LIFE AT K2: the village of a successful farming and trading community
K2 is a particularly large Iron Age site with vast deposits containing a wealth of artifacts such as glass beads and pottery, often found in the numerous graves of the villagers. Huge quantities of bone fragments from slaughtered domestic animals and burnt seeds of domesticated plants such as sorghum and bullrush millet indicate that the K2 people were successful farmers. They were generally healthy people due to their nutritious diet. They were skilled craftsmen who produced characteristic pottery, large glass beads, tools and body ornaments of iron, copper bangles and figurines of humans and domesticated animals. They hunted elephants and traded the ivory for glass beads imported via the African East Coast by traders such as the Swahili.

MAPUNGUBWE: stratigraphic pages of African history
Mapungubwe Hill is a sandstone hill with vertical cliffs and a flat top approximately 30m high and 300, long. A substantial deposit with layers of soil covers it; remains of floors, burnt houses and household refuse. The Southern Terrace below was inhabited from around AD 1030 to 1290 (about 260 years). The hilltop was inhabited for about 70 years from AD 1220 to Ad 1290.

The gold objects from the Mapungubwe graves, such as the rhinoceros, sceptre and bowl, were originally gold sheet or foil covering wooden carvings. The gold sheet was folded around the wooden core and held in place with tacks. In some cases, the gold cover was decorated with punched indentations or incised lines.
Some of these objects, such as the sceptre and rhinoceros, were possibly symbols associated with a person of special significance or high status, such as a king. The person was eventually buried with these objects in accordance with traditional customs and social or religious beliefs. Numerous beads and bangles from graves on Mapungubwe Hill indicate that some members of the community adorned themselves with different types of golden jewellery. These ornaments probably belonged to senior members of the royal family at Mapungubwe.

Many objects were made of fired clay, or pottery. They were used for various purposes, some still unknown. Human figurines, usually with an elongated body and stumps for heads, arms and legs, were common at K2. They are often decorated with incisions or rows of dots. Some are highly simplified, like the conical figurine found at Mapungubwe.
Animal figurines, mostly from K2, include cattle, sheep and goats. At Mapungubwe, a giraffe figurine was also found. The conical figurines often found at Mapungubwe may have had symbolic significance. Some everyday practical items include spoons, whistles, a funnel and spindle whorls used in the production of cotton cloth. Large pottery beads and mould were used to manufacture large cylindrical glass beads, known as garden roller beads.

The Iron Age villagers adorned themselves with numerous beads made of ostrich eggshell, large land snails, bone and ivory.
They wore bracelets made of ivory, decorated their clothes and hair with pins made of bone and ivory, and wore perforated cowrie shells imported from the East Coast.
Some of the last inhabitants of Mapungubwe made and used polished bone arrowheads and arrow link shafts, similar to the arrows used by the San or Bushmen.
Some bone arrowheads from Mapungubwe have flattened front ends into which iron tips were fitted. The people used awls and flat needles made of bone, probably to manufacture clothes from animal skins.

Thousands of glass beads have been found in the middens and graves at K2 and Mapungubwe. Burial customs show that children and adults wore strings of beads in a traditional African way. Large quantities of these beads were traded through Swahili ports on the East coast of Africa. Trade beads were imported from foreign countries such as Egypt or India in exchange for ivory and gold from Africa.

The K2 people manufactured large beads, known as garden roller beads. Whole and broken trade glass beads were melted and the molten glass was wound into a prefabricated clay mould to set. The clay mould was then broken to remove the new garden roller glass bead. These are the oldest glass objects made in Southern Africa.

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Dis-Graced Mugabe

Mugabe’s late sister Sabina is reported to have told Mugabe before she died that Grace and Gideon Gono, the powerful head of Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe and Mugabe’s confidant, were secret lovers. Grace 41 has taken lover before “One lover, Peter Pamire, died in a mysterious car accident. James Makamba. One of Zimbabwean richest businessman and a top rainking Zanu-PF official, enjoyed her favour but their affair ended in tears, too, when a furious and sexually jealous Mugabe ran him out of town in fear of his life” the Zimbabwen Mail reported.

I opted not to write about the death threats and the people that Mugabe is alleged to have killed because I wanted to centre on the main issues here which are the root of the problem (Cheating and Forgiveness). The issue that also raised my eyebrow is about Mugabe’s junior wife, I keep asking myself questions if she truly loves the man she is married with. We have these breed of women all over the world “Gold Digers”. Robert Mugabe might be seen as a tyrant and a human rights abuser to many but we should not encourage adultery in any way, the reality is that he has been cheated; he is still a human being.

On the above quotation, it has been highlighted that Grace has had affairs with two different men before Gono. Perhaps sometimes forgiveness can lead you to more trouble. I don’t know what Mugabe was thinking when giving his cheating wife a second and third chance at the first place. In our culture (Venda Culture) cheating by a woman is taken as serious offence. There is NO SECOND CHANCE for cheating women (hupfi otswa nga Tshivenda). This is what you get when you forgive a cheat, more EMBARRASSMENT.

Perhaps God has the way of punishing people; what ever wrongs that Mugabe has done this might be the rightful punishment God had to give him. Such things happened in the bible when Absalom had sexual intercourse with his father’s concubines (David) in sight of every one. It was a punishment to David by God. It is an embarrassment for a leader who can stand still against the world without budging but yet surprisingly he can not sort his personal issues. Or should I call it a “domestic affairs” he keeps bragging about.

I do not encourage divorce but the decent thing that Mugabe can do is to divorce his “prostitute” and stop eliminating everyone who fall on Grace’s trap (if the allegations are true). I mean even two warnings are enough for someone to loose a job. The problem is a woman. It goes back to the article I wrote few moths back about Mswati’s wife having an affair with his closest friend, actually it’s a replica. The so called “Close Friends” they are green snakes on the green grass. I’m inclined to agree with those who say “there is no permanent friendship in politics”.


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Tsonga or Shangaan People

There are many things that you do not know about Tsonga or Shangaan people, here is their history. I saw it fitting to also publish the history of Tsonga people in order to also help in promoting our history and diverse culture as South Africans.


The Tsonga are a diverse people, generally including the Shangaan, Thonga, Tonga, and several smaller ethnic groups. Together they numbered about 1.5 million people in South Africa in the mid-1990s, with some 4.5 million individuals in southern Mozambique and Zimbabwe.

Historical Background
The first Tsonga-speakers to enter the former Transvaal probably did so during the 18th Century. They were essentially traders who followed rivers inland, where they bartered cloth and beads for ivory, copper and salt.

The Shangaan tribe came into being when King Shaka of the Zulu, sent Soshangane (Manukosi) to conquer the Tsonga people in the area of present-day southern Mozambique, during the Mfecane upheaval of the 19th Century. Soshangane found a fertile place inhabited by scattered communities of peace-loving people, and he decided to make it his home rather than return to Shaka.

The Shangaan were a mixture of Nguni (a language group which includes Swazi, Zulu and Xhosa), and Tsonga speakers (Ronga, Ndzawu, Shona, Chopi tribes), which Soshangane conquered and subjugated.
Soshangane insisted that Nguni customs be adopted, and that the Tsonga learn the Zulu language. Young Tsonga men were assigned to the army as 'mabulandlela' (those who open the road). Soshangane also imposed Shaka's military system of dominion and taught the people the Zulu ways of fighting.

Soshangane’s army overran the Portuguese settlements in Mozambique, at Delagoa Bay, Inhambane and Sena, and during the next few years, he established the Nguni kingdom of Kwa Gaza, which he named after his grandfather, Gaza.

The Gaza Kingdom comprised parts of what are now southeastern Zimbabwe, as well as extending from the Save River down to the southern part of Mozambique, covering parts of the current provinces of Sofala, Manica, Inhambane, Gaza and Maputo, and neighbouring parts of South Africa.
Another army, under the command of Dingane and Mhlangana, was sent by Shaka to deal with Soshangane, but the army suffered great hardship because of hunger and malaria, and Soshangane had no difficulty, towards the end of 1828, in driving them off.

During the whole of this turbulent period, from 1830 onwards, groups of Tsonga speakers moved southwards and defeated smaller groups living in northern Natal; others moved westwards into the Transvaal, where they settled in an arc stretching from the Soutpansberg in the north, to Nelspruit and Barberton areas in the southeast, with isolated groups reaching as far westwards as Rustenburg.

After the death of Soshangane in 1856, his sons fought over the chieftainship. Soshangane had left the throne to Mzila, but Mawewe felt that he should be chief. Mawewe attacked Mzila and his followers, causing them to leave Mozambique and flee to the Soutpansberg Mountains in the Transvaal.

Mzila stayed with João Albasini at Luonde. Albasini, who had been appointed by the Portuguese Vice-Consul to the Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek (ZAR) in 1858, employed many of the Tsonga men as 'indhuna' (headman), and defenders of his fort-like home at the foot of the Piesangkop near the modern town of Makhado (formerly known as Louis Trichardt).

Aided by Albasini and traders at Lourenço Marques, Mzila gained the upper hand, returning and defeating Mawewe in 1862. Mawewe fled to Swaziland, where he sought the help of King Mswati I, finally settling in northern Swaziland on the border with Gazaland. Ngungunyane, who succeeded Mzila, was defeated by the Portuguese in 1895, which caused the collapse of the Gaza kingdom.
The Tsonga came to João Albasini for protection and they considered Jiwawa (the Tsonga version of his name) as their chief. Between 1864 and 1867, the Tsonga were involved in the battles between Paul Kruger's commandos and the Venda chief Makhato. For their services they were rewarded some land near the town of Schoemansdal.

This area became known as the 'Knobneusen Location', because of the habit the Tsonga had acquired of tattooing the nose. Later the Shangaan people fled to the Lowveld after the Portuguese conquered them. The descendants of both Tsonga and Shangaan lived together in the area and a great deal of interaction occurred between the two groups.

The Tsonga-Shangaan homeland, Gazankulu, was carved out of northern Transvaal Province during the 1960s and was granted self-governing status in 1973. The homeland economy depended largely on gold and on a small manufacturing sector.
Only an estimated 500,000 people - less than half the Tsonga-Shangaan population of South Africa - ever lived there. Many others joined the throngs of township residents around urban centres, especially Johannesburg and Pretoria.

Traditionally, each Tsonga family had its own "village" composed of a few houses and a kraal, surrounded by the fields and grazing areas. From 1964, the government started resettling the people in rural villages of 200 to 400 families.

These resettlements brought tremendous changes in the life of the people, some for the better (roads, schools, water, etc), some for the worse (scattering of the enlarged family, lack of privacy, problems with cattle, distance form the fields, and so forth).


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Pedi People

Here is the Pedi people history as it has been written:

Estimated at 7 million, these Sotho speakers are the second largest African language group in South Africa. Three million Sotho and other closely related groups live outside of South Africa, the majority of who are in Lesotho.

The Sotho can be subdivided into three groups. The first group is the Northern Sotho also called Pedi and Bapedi.

The Pedi society arose out of a confederation of small chiefdoms that had been established sometime before the 17th century in what later became the Northern Transvaal (Northern Province). Defeated early in the 19th century by the armies of Mzilikazi, they revived under the leadership of Sekwati. Thereafter, they repeatedly clashed with the Voortrekkers during the later half of the 19th century.

Historical Background
It appears that the Sotho people migrated southward from the Great Lakes in Central Africa about 5 centuries ago in successive waves and the last group, namely, the Hurutse, settled in the Western Transvaal towards the beginning of the 16th century.

It is from this group that the Pedi eventually originated through the Bakgatla offshoot that takes its name from the chief Mokgatla. Very little is known of the history of the Bakgatla people for the first few generations after their founder Mokgatla had withdrawn from the originating group, but it is known that, arising from a further split at a later date, a chief by the name of Tabane left with his followers and settled at what is now known as Schilpadfontein in the vicinity of Pretoria.

It is not known how long they lived there, but Tabane appears to have been succeeded by his son Motsha, whose son and heir Diale (or Liale) had a number of wives, the youngest of whom was his favourite, Mathobele. The other wives were jealous of her favoured position and when she was expecting her first child they would tease and mock her; saying that her child cried whilst still in her womb.

Mathobele gave birth to a healthy boy, and named him 'Lellelateng' meaning 'it cries inside', but the unusual event was attributed to witchcraft and the Kgatla council, wanted to kill the mother and child. Diale interceded for them and they were both saved.

However, as the baby grew older it became apparent that he would not be accepted by the tribe, and it seems that he and his family, together with a large following, broke away or were driven away and trekked to the east with their flocks and herds to start the Pedi nation.

They crossed the Olifants River below its junction with the Elands River and passed through the country north of Middelburg. They crossed the Lulu Mountains and eventually settled near Steelpoort in approximately 1650. From there, they gained control of trade routes running from the interior to the Mozambique coast, and started their reign over other Sotho speakers in the area.

By 1800 Thulare was the leader of the Pedi Empire in the northeastern Transvaal. His capital Manganeng lay on the Tubatse / Steelpoort River. The Pedi consisted of several tribes, who enjoyed great wealth under Thulare’s rule and he is still honoured as a great chief and leader to this day.

His death in 1824 – during a solar eclipse was followed by 2 years of disputes over his successor. There is some uncertainty as to Thulare's successor as about 1826, about 2 years after his death, the whole Pedi Empire was crushed and disrupted by Mzilikazi’s reign of terror throughout the Transvaal.

However, in the chaos that followed Sekwati, the senior living son of Thulare, gathered what he could of the Pedi and fled to the north where he took refuge with Ramapulana to whom the Pedi were related some 5 generations before.

He left behind him a country devastated by the Matabele who had completely stripped the land of all stock and grain. The remaining people of the old Pedi Empire had fled into the mountains and caves from where they would venture into the night to find whatever food they could.

Many of the people became cannibals and eventually, after an absence of about 4 years, Sekwati returned and reconstructed the dominance of the Pedi and rid their land of the cannibals. He established himself at Phiring near Pokwani on a rocky hill, which is known today as Magali's Location.
Although the Pedi originated from the Bakgatla and were of Sotho origin, their inter-marriage with other tribes by defeating them, ended up in the application of many other words in the Pedi language and customs which are not of Sotho origin, but which are akin to the Venda and Lovedu and the Karanga from Zimbabwe.

Sekwati's successor, Sekhukhune, initially consolidated the power of the Pedi, but years of drought and a series of attacks from the South African Republic and the Swazi chiefdom weakened the Pedi during the 1870s.

However, in 1845, the Voortrekkers, under Hendrik Potgieter, established a settlement at Ohrigstad in terms of a treaty with the Pedi. But this did not stop the Pedi from stealing their cattle, and soon there were problems with grazing rights and labour.
This situation deteriorated for many years until in 1876 the Voortrekkers waged war on the Pedi, under Sekhukhune. The Voortrekkers main objective was to capture the assets of the Pedi, however, their plans were thwarted by what could only be described as a 'trench system'. Thus the Voortrekkers had to lay siege and try to starve the Pedi into submission.

They harassed the Pedi in every way possible and impeded their crop cultivation and the grazing of their cattle. The Voortrekkers demanded 2 000 head of cattle as repayment, but Sekhukhune refused to pay. They had hoped for a quick peace, but this situation continued until the British annexed the Transvaal in April 1877.

In early 1878 the war was resumed - this time by the British under Theophilus Shepstone, who saw Sekhukhune as a hindrance to British Imperialist amitions in southern Africa. The war was divided into 3 phases.
The first phase was initiated by an attack on Sekhukhune's sister, Lekgolane, who, after leaving, rejoined her brother fearing he would attack her. But the British underestimated the Pedi resistance, which ended up in a standoff.

The second phase took place in August 1879 after the end of the Anglo-Zulu War when the British attacked Sekhukhune with a force of 139 infantry and 338 mounted men - all regular army. The Pedi ambushed them and, using the rugged mountainous terrain to their advantage, frustrated the British advance so much that they were forced to retreat to Fort Burgers.

The third and final phase took place after the Zulu War in November 1879 when 3 500 British regular troops and 3 000 Transvaal levies combined forces with 8 000 Swazi warriors to remove Sekhukhune from his kraal. While the British and the Transvalers made a frontal attack, the Swazi made a rear attack by swarming over the Pedi’s entrenched positions on the mountain.

In a battle lasting over 5 hours the Pedi were defeated. However, a number of them were able to escape and hide in the holes of a small, honeycombed hill, the Ntswaneng, from where they had to be smoked out.

When night fell, the few survivors escaped under a cover of mist and darkness. Sekhukhune was captured and sentenced to a long term of imprisonment, but when the British withdrew from the Transvaal after the first Anglo-Boer War, he was released.

In that same year, the Transvaal government seized much of the Pedi land and forced many to work as labourers on white-owned farms.
Social and Cultural Life

The Pedi lived in huts, which were round in shape and known as rondawels. Rondawels were made out of clay mixed with “boloko” (cow dung) in order to strengthen it. The roofing of the rondawels was made from a particular grass called “loala” which was strong and long, and they would pack the grass in bangles and roof the houses.

Traditional Pedi food consisted of; thophi (a meal which is made from maize mixed with a fruit called lerotse), morogo wa dikgopana (spinach cooked and given a round shape and left to dry up in the sun). Bogobe ba mabele, samp and maswi (milk), masonja (mopane worms) is also eaten as well as vegetables and fruits like milo and machilo.
In Pedi culture the chief would wear clothes made out of wild animal skin such as Leopard and Lion to show leadership and he was from the ruling house (moshate).

Ordinary people wore clothes made out of domestic animal skin such as goats, sheep and cows. However, the Pedi have changed their mode of dressing because of the present trends in fashion.

There are many spoken dialects of Sepedi but only one written language. The Pedi are known for storytelling. The stories are usually told in the evenings but nowadays radio and TV have replaced them.
War Tactics:

It could hardly be said that the Pedi were a warlike tribe, and it is difficult to determine whether they ever had the courage to fight a battle with a rival tribe. Pedi custom was to send men to the opposing tribe, for doctoring or of selling bead work but, in truth, they were spies who reported upon an opportunity for waging attack on the kraal.

The chief would then summon all the men of his tribe to assemble with their weapons, which mainly consisted of assegais and battle-axes. The men were aware of the need to bring food supplies for the duration of the journey.

It did not take long to for the men to assemble, and the whole of the Pedi army would set off in the opposite direction to their destination which was kept secret from the main following until the second night, when suddenly the course would be changed and they would rush on to the targeted kraal.
The attack was made stealthily and no prisoners were taken, except the women and children. In most cases the attacks were effective and a great deal of bloodshed resulted. Unlike the Zulus and the Matabele, to whom the art of war and military strategy was a science and military discipline was a way of life; the military organization of the Pedi was very primitive.

Each man in a Pedi tribe provided for himself and followed his own ideas as to what he should do. Tactics were formulated by the chief in council, and the execution of the tactics was assigned to the chief's brother, who took on the task of active command over the tribesmen.

All the cattle looted were handed to the man in command, who made sure that a third was slaughtered, a third was sent to the chief's kraal and the remaining third to be handed back to the men who had looted the opposing tribe. Women and children were regarded as loot and divided among the followers of the chief.
Belief System
The Pedi believe in ancestors and gods, they believe that through ancestors they can talk to gods about their needs. They also believe that when the time is right young men and women should go to initiation school.

They also reckoned that anyone who violates how things are done concerning culture and their tradition is to be taken away from the village.
Pedi Rituals:

When it comes to marriage the elders would choose the spouse for their son or daughter. If the parents knew their child liked someone in the village they would go to that family and introduce themselves, to discuss the future nuptials. And thereafter arrangements would be made on how the two people would meet.

A decision would then be made by the girl’s parents as to how many cows or money will be paid as Bogadi, then the 2 may be together. If a man died, an unmarried younger brother would marry the widow, in order to support the family and take care of the children.
The mother usually gave birth at her family home and after she returned to her husband’s home, her family would contribute meat and beer for the subsequent feast. As a tribute to the status of the new mother, her husband would build her a homestead. When a baby was born to the chief the villagers have to go to the royal house (moshate), give presents to the child, and wish the baby well.

After a few days there would be an announcement from the chief’s servants that a ceremonial party would be held whereby the villagers would sing and rejoice for the newborn baby with food and drink that is traditionally prepared.
When a person dies they bury him / her after 7 days so that they could have enough time to arrange everything including informing the friends, relatives and all the people who need to know about the death of that particular person. This was in order to give them time to be able to attend to the funeral.

The day before the person is going to be buried they will cover him / her with cow skin. Everybody will then get a chance to see that person for the last time (go tlhoboga), and the following day he / she will be buried.
Music and Dance:

Songs were also part of Pedi culture. During hard labour the Pedi would sing together to finish the job quickly. One particular song was about killing a Lion to become a man.

The act of killing a Lion is very unusual and no longer practised. Actually it was so unusual that if a boy managed, he would get high status and the ultimate prize – to marry the chief’s daughter.
The Pedi today
In the 1950s a Pedi migrant workers' organisation (Sebatakgomo) tried to cast out chiefs, headmen and others who accepted Bantu authorities and rural betterment programmes. In 1958 a major protest took place in Sekhukhuneland in which those who sought to defend the chieftainship were challenged by the new forces.

The Northern Sotho homeland of Lebowa was proclaimed a 'self-governing' territory in 1972, with a population of almost 2 million. Economic problems plagued the poverty-stricken homeland, however, and the people were not unified.
Lebowa's chief minister, Cedric Phatudi, struggled to maintain control over the increasingly disgruntled homeland population during the early 1980s, his death in 1985 opened new factional splits and occasioned calls for a new homeland government.

Homeland politics were complicated by the demands of several ethnic minorities within Lebowa to have their land transferred to the jurisdiction of another homeland. At the same time, government efforts to consolidate homeland territory forced the transfer of several small regions of land into Lebowa. Conflict broke out again in 1986 in what had by then become the Bantustan of Lebowa.


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